Submissive women in bondage

Added: Sherrell Horning - Date: 22.07.2021 14:11 - Views: 27694 - Clicks: 4418

Giving and receiving pain are common in the practice of BDSM bondage-discipline, dominance-submission, and sadism-masochism. Playing a submissive role during BDSM practice weakens both the behavioral and neural empathic responses of female individuals to others' suffering, suggesting that long-term BDSM experience affects BDSM practitioners' empathic ability. This study further investigates whether physical restriction during BDSM practice also modulates individuals' neural responses to others' suffering. The neural responses recorded during 92— ms N1 , — ms P2 , — ms N2 , early late positive potential LPP, — ms , and late LPP —1, ms were included in the analyses.

Compared to the relaxed condition, when a ball gag was used to prevent facial muscle movement and facial mimicry, the N1, early LPP, and late LPP responses neural responses to others' suffering were inhibited. The moderation effect of ball gag blocking on the N1 and early LPP amplitudes was positively correlated with the subjective feelings of facial muscle stillness, and the blocking moderation effect on the late LPP amplitudes was positively correlated with subjective feelings of humiliation.

These findings suggest that physical restriction via a ball gag during BDSM practices increases the wearer's facial muscle stillness and sense of humiliation. This physical restriction inhibits both early automatic responses and late controlled processes in response to the suffering of others. BDSM includes many types of sexual practices or roleplaying, such as bondage, physical restriction, punishment, and power exchange Alison et al.

For example, Breyer et al. Frequent exposure to pain-inflicting situations not only affects individuals' pain perception but also influences their perception of the pain of others Cheng et al. These subjective responses to other people's suffering, also known as empathy for pain Batson, , play a key role in prosocial behavior and function abnormally in multiple disorders, such as psychopathy and borderline personality disorder Soderstrom, ; de Waal, ; Harari et al.

During the prior decade, the underlying neural mechanisms of empathy have been extensively studied using neuroimaging techniques. Event-related potential ERP studies have also revealed that compared to non-painful stimuli, the perception of painful stimuli applied to others modulates the amplitudes of both the early and late ERP components in the frontocentral and centroparietal areas Decety et al. To date, increasing studies have shown that empathic neural responses to others' suffering are strongly modulated by social and biological factors, such as personal experiences Cheng et al.

For example, physicians show less empathy-related pain activity in the AI and ACC than healthy controls, suggesting that empathic brain responses are reduced in empathizers who are frequently exposed to pain-inflicting situations Cheng et al. We ly examined the empathy trait and empathic responses to others' suffering in BDSM practitioners. Practitioners play various roles during BDSM practice, such as the dominant role Dom; the person who exerts control , the submissive role Sub; the person who gives up control , or both roles depending on the situation Switches Wismeijer and van Assen, We found that female submissives showed lower trait empathy scores and subjective pain intensity ratings than the controls; however, the empathy trait in male BDSM practitioners did not ificantly differ from that in the control group Luo and Zhang, The electroencephalogram EEG recordings further revealed that the differential amplitudes in response to painful and neutral expressions in the frontal N1 92— ms , frontal P2 — ms , and central late LPP —1, ms were lower in the submissive group than those in the control group, suggesting that playing the submissive role during BDSM practice weakens female individuals' empathic responses to others' suffering at both the behavioral and neural levels.

However, these studies mainly focused on the effect of long-term BDSM experience on practitioners' empathic ability, and knowledge regarding whether and how the transient physical restriction used in BDSM practice modulates individuals' neural responses to others' suffering is limited. When participants were asked to hold a pen horizontally using both their teeth and lips to prevent facial muscle movement and facial mimicry, the frontal N1 response — ms to painful expressions was ificantly reduced Han et al.

Similarly, the ball gag, which is a device that is sometimes worn during sexual bondage and BDSM practice, may also prevent facial muscle movement and facial mimicry, thereby inhibiting neural responses to others' suffering. In addition to the N1 component, a long-latency neural response was observed after ms over the central parietal regions; this response is usually called the LPP component or P3 component and is suggested to be related to empathy Fan and Han, ; Han et al.

Fan and Han revealed differential ERPs in response to painful and neutral stimuli over the central parietal regions at ms after sensory stimulation. Subsequent research further found that the LPP component could be regulated by the participants' emotional states and social contexts Fan and Han, ; Olofsson et al. For example, erotic pictures evoked enhanced P3 amplitudes — compared with other pictures. In addition, a ball gag can also increase the wearer's sense of helplessness during BDSM practice by rendering them unable to speak.

For some people, gags have connotations of punishment and control and, thus, can be used as a form of humiliation or dehumanization pony or animal play. These humiliation or dehumanization processes may also have an effect on the LPP responses to others' suffering. The neural responses to others' suffering were calculated by contrasting the responses to perceived painful stimuli with those to non-painful facial expressions, which is similar to studies Sheng and Han, ; Luo et al.

Furthermore, we assessed whether the context of the painful expression painful expression in a general context vs. In contrast to a non-social context e. These sadistic contexts have clear social implications that suggest that someone's painful experience was inflicted by a sadist and that these sadistic behaviors will continue.

Furthermore, in the sadistic context, criminal sexual sadists lack the ability to empathize with the victims, which may lead to an increased likelihood of perpetrating instrumental violence Kirsch and Becker, Therefore, the social context in which pain occurs may modulate the neural responses to the pain of others Akitsuki and Decety, Thus, the neuroimaging obtained in the current study allowed us to examine whether there were consistent differences in neural responses to others' suffering between the ball gag blocking condition and the relaxed condition across sexual sadistic and non-relevant general contexts and provided new insight into the neural underpinnings of empathy for pain during BDSM practices.

Have you ever engaged in BDSM practices? We divided the BDSM practitioners into the dominant group Doms , switch group Switches , or submissive group Subs based on their subjective reports of their roles. Twenty-six female submissive individuals aged 18—30 years participated in this study as paid volunteers. This sample size is similar to that in a study Han et al. The exclusion criteria included self-reported medical or psychiatric illness and the use of medication. Before conducting the study, written informed consent was obtained from all participants, and this study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Department of Psychology of Sun Yat-Sen University.

The stimuli used during the EEG recordings were the same as those used in a study Luo and Zhang, and consisted of 48 digital photographs of female faces with neutral or painful expressions, including 16 neutral expressions no painful or BDSM information involved , 16 painful expressions in general contexts no BDSM information involved and 16 painful expressions in sexual sadistic contexts e.

The current study adopted a within-subject de with blocking ball gag blocking blocking vs. The participants completed 8 EEG blocks of 96 trials during the experiment. Each photo was presented twice in random order in each block. The participants were asked to hold a ball gag in their mouths in four of the blocks of trials, whereas there was nothing in their mouths during the other four blocks of trials.

There was a min break between the ball gag Blocking and Relaxed blocks of trials. The order of the blocking and relaxed conditions was counterbalanced across participants. During the EEG recordings, each face had a visual angle of 4. The interstimulus intervals consisted of a fixation cross with a duration that randomly varied between and 1, ms.

The participants judged the expression of each face painful vs. After the EEG recordings, the participants were asked to rate the degree of facial muscle stiffness and subjective feelings of shame and sexual arousal during the blocking and relaxed blocks on a 9-point Likert scale. Eye blinks and vertical eye movements were monitored with electrodes located above and below the left eye.

A horizontal electrooculogram was recorded from electrodes placed 1. The EEG was amplified band pass 0. All data were re-referenced off-line to an average mastoid reference and filtered high frequency noise from muscle tension using a band-pass filter 0. To further exclude the confounding factors of short prestimulus interval and low frequency noise, we also used ms as the prestimulus interval and a band-pass filter Hz to analyse our data see Supplementary Information.

The ERPs from each condition were averaged separately off-line using an epoch beginning ms before the stimulus onset and continued for 1, ms after the stimulus onset. The baseline of the ERP measurements was the mean voltage of a ms pre-stimulus interval, and the latency was measured relative to the stimulus onset.

Consistent with studies Luo and Zhang, ; Luo et al. Both voltage topography and standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography sLORETA Pascual-Marqui, were used to estimate the potential sources of the empathic neural responses. Statistical nonparametric mapping was performed in a specific time window to estimate the source that differed in the ERPs between the painful and neutral expressions. The log of the F ratio and t values of the averages were used and considered at a ificance level of 0. The subjective feelings of facial muscle stiffness under the blocking condition were ificantly higher than those under the relaxed condition [blocking: 7.

The subjective ratings of pain intensity, unpleasantness, enjoyableness, and arousal in response to the neutral, general painful and sadistic painful stimuli were showed in Table 1. The subjective rating of shame and sexual arousal during blocking and relaxed condition were showed in Table 2. Table 1. Table 2. In the present study, as in studies Luo and Zhang, , the LPP was evaluated as the average activity during the following two time windows: early — ms and late —1, ms.

Figure 2. ERP . A ERPs recorded at Cz in response to general painful, sexual sadistic painful and neutral expressions in female submissives. C Illustration of the of the source estimation. Compared with the responses to the neutral expressions, increased activities in response to the painful expressions in the N1, early LPP and late LPP time windows were identified in the left temporo-parietal junction, right superior temporal sulcus, anterior midcingulate, and right insula.

These replicated ERP findings Han et al. Table 3. Mean N1 amplitudes in response to each expression under the relaxed and blocked conditions. These are consistent with studies Luo and Zhang, and suggest that compared to neutral expressions, painful expressions in general contexts do not enhance the P2 amplitude in female submissives. Table 4. Mean early LPP amplitudes in response to each expression under the relaxed and blocked conditions.

Sexual arousal under the ball gag blocking conditions was not ificantly associated with the N1 and LPP effects. The scalp topographies for each component were provided in Figure 3. Table 5. Mean late LPP amplitudes in response to each expression under the relaxed and blocked conditions. Figure 3. Scalp topographies for neutral, general painful and sadistic painful condition in each component. The current study aimed to determine whether and how physical restriction during BDSM practice shapes humans' responses to others' suffering and identify the underlying neural correlates.

Our showed that during the use of a ball gag to prevent facial muscle movement and facial mimicry, the neural responses to others' suffering at N1, early LPP, and late LPP were inhibited compared to the responses under the relaxed condition. Furthermore, the moderation effect of blocking with a ball gag on the N1 and early LPP amplitudes was positively correlated with the subjective feelings of facial muscle stillness, and the moderation effect of blocking on the late LPP amplitudes was positively correlated with subjective feelings of humiliation. Researchers have proposed that empathy processes could be influenced by individuals' bodily states.

Embodiment plays an important role in processing emotional information. This process is facilitated when individuals' bodily expressions of emotion are consistent with others' emotional states and is impaired when individuals' bodily expressions are inconsistent with others' emotional states Niedenthal et al. According to this theory, early research found that asking participants to hold a pen with their teeth and lips to block the movement of expression-relevant facial muscles ificantly impaired the detection of facial expressions Niedenthal et al. The manipulation of facial muscles related to pain by holding a pen horizontally using both teeth and lips modulated the empathic responses at — ms N1 Han et al.

Consistently, our revealed that the brain responses to both general painful and sexual sadistic painful stimuli in N1 under the blocking condition were reliably lower than those under the relaxed condition in female submissives.

Submissive women in bondage

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Why is a tale of sexual submission so dominant in women's thoughts?